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Specialty Graphic Imaging Association
SGIA Glossary

Definition Glossary

Sixth Edition

Language and our ideas about how it is interpreted change rapidly. The Specialty Graphic Imaging Association (SGIA) is aware of this and continues its effort to keep our constituents well informed about changes to the increasingly complex industry terminology. This publication represents the most recent changes.

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Acceptable abbreviation for same side.

saddle stitch (wire stitch)

A common method of binding booklets where the folded pages are stitched through the spine from the outside.

safety faucet

A faucet equipped with build-in flame arrester and self-closing lid used for withdrawing flammable liquid from drums.

sail boat easel

An easel used in construction of a display involving a sail boat design.

salt glaze

A glaze produced by the reaction at elevated temperatures between a ceramic body surface and salt fumes produced in the kiln atmosphere.


A small representative portion of a production run, product, or material.


The process of collecting statistical data or print samples from a production run for analysis.

sampling rate

The number of points of data, in pixels per inch, that are created by a scanner per linear distance; also refer to optical sampling rate.

sand wash

A chemical or mechanical process where dye is removed from a garment with the use of acid to create a speckled look.


A process of decorating glass or wood by using an air driven abrasive.


The combining of films in register and securing them together.

sans serif

Letters that do not have small spurs or extensions at the terminals, such as a Gothic typeface.

saponification number

The number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify one gram of oil.


A glucoside capable of reducing surface tension and producing a soapy lather.

satin etch

(1) A very smooth surface with low or dull reflection properties; (2) A material that is applied to glass surface then fired or cured to simulate acid etching.

satin stitch

Closely placed stitches, similar to zig-zag except they alternate between straight and angular stitches of varying length and density.

saturated solution

A liquid containing the maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in the liquid at a certain temperature.


(1) Equals chroma; a measurement of the degree of pureness or movement away from gray; (2) The greatest degree of vapor that ambient air can hold at a certain temperature; (3) The greatest degree of concentration of a solute in a solution or solvent; (4) Referred to as chroma in Munsell System.

sawtooth (stairsteps)

A stairstep appearance on the edges of a screen print; the effect of stencil material that conforms to the threads of a screen printing mesh rather than the contours of the design on the film positive from which the stencil is produced. (Both insufficient bridging and filling-in of the meshes produces a notched effect where lines of the design cross the fabric mesh diagonally).

SBQ photopolymer

An emulsion with salt sensitizer (SBQ) that is linked to the polyvinylacetate (PVA) during manufacture.


(1) Printed range of values on a measurement instrument divided into either mathematical or logarithmic increments; (2) instrument for measuring by weight; also called a balance; (3) proportion between the dimensions of the original art and its reproduction size.

scalloped lock

A lock for connecting a hinged display member to a stationary part.


A sketch of a design showing the basic concept.


The process of translating a image from artwork or transparency into digital information; the sequential examination or exposure of a character or image with a moving light beam.

scan linearity

The degree to which a plot of scanned reflectance or transmittance vs. absolute reflectance or transmittance is a straight line. Deviations in this plot either above or below a straight line represent tones that are recorded by the scanner as too light or too dark.


A hardware peripheral that illuminates, reads, and converts original information into digital data.


A joint formed by stripping or bolting two notched pieces together.

scatter diagram

An x-y chart that measures the relationship between two sets of variables.


The process by which light passing through a material is redirected in many directions.

scattering coefficient

Rate of increase of reflection over an ideally black backing, caused by the internal scatter of light in the surface of the paper that is not completely opaque.


In the printing of solder paste through etched metal masks, this occurs where the flexible squeegee blade presses down into the open stencil cavity, with the result of scraping solder paste out of the stencil rather than depositing the desired thickness onto the substrate.


A device to measure Shore hardness consisting of a small conical hammer fitted with a diamond point and acting in a glass tube. The hammer strikes the material and the degree of rebound is noted on a graduated scale.

scoop coater (coater)

A tool for coating screen printing mesh with liquid photosensitive emulsion; a tool typically a scrapper with a smooth metal trough used to spread thin layers of direct emulsion on a prestretched mesh.

scoop coater (emulsion coater) (coater)

A tool for coating screen printing mesh with liquid photosensitive emulsion; a tool typically a scrapper with a smooth metal trough used to spread thin layers of direct emulsion on a pre-stretched mesh.


Trade name of the 3M Company for a reflective sheet material used for outdoor applications.

scratch test

A ink adhesion test that involves placing a printed sample on a hard, smooth surface and scratching it with a fingernail using quite heavy pressure to determine if the ink imprint will flake off the surface.