Glossary Of Terms

The SGIA Glossary of Terms serves as an excellent industry terminology resource. It is the language by which we all communicate, without it universal understanding would be impossible. Language and our ideas about how it is interpreted change rapidly. SGIA is aware of this and continues its effort to keep our constituents well informed about changes to the increasingly complex industry terminology. The definitions are for general reference only. Usage may vary between companies, individuals, or national and country customs. The information presented is as accurate as the authors and editors can ascertain and SGIA assumes no responsibility for the use of information presented herein.


  • Fiber optic backlighting
    An illuminating device employed to light large areas, composed of strands of clear fibers that are woven, bundled, polished, and illuminated by LED or halogen lamp.
  • Fiber reactive dye
    A type of dye used on 100% cotton or rayon, expensive but has superior color fastness and brightness.
  • Fibrillation
    A shade change in colored fabrics caused by surface abrasion.
  • Fiel stitch (Geflect stitch)
    A series of running stitches commonly used to color large areas in embroidery.
  • Field of view
    Volume in space defined by a cone extending out from the focal plane of a camera.
  • FIFO
    Acceptable acronym for first in, first out.
  • Figure four easel
    A type of easel used where interruption of attaching surface by construction, obstruction, etc., forestall application of single wing or double wing easels.
  • Figure glass
    Flat glass having a pattern on one or both sides.
  • Filament
    A single continuous strand, fiber or thread.
  • Fill
    The illuminate material in a UV lamp that is activated by energy; typically mercury, although other elements are also used; refer to weft.
  • Fill thread
    Another name for the weft thread in weaving.
  • Filler
    (1) An inert substance added to plastic or ink formulations to reduce cost, add strength, and/or to provide bulk; (2) A material, generally non-fibrous, added to a paper mixture to increase smoothness or opacity.
  • Fill-in
    A condition in screen printing, or any method of printing, in which the spaces between the halftone dots are obscured by too heavy an application of ink or excessive flow in the ink.
  • Filling-in
    A condition in screen printing, or any method of printing, in which the spaces between the halftone dots are obscured by too heavy an application of ink or by excessive flow in the ink.
  • Film
    (1) Transparent support sheet coated with light sensitive emulsion for use in a camera; (2) Indirect photoscreen stencil film; (3) Any of the various thin sheet materials - transparent, translucent, or opaque - used as the face material in manufacturing pressure sensitive stock, and having a thickness usually not greater than 0.25 mm (0.010 in).
  • Film adhesion
    The relative quality of the bonding of a screen printing stencil film to the screen printing fabric.
  • Film adhesive
    Class of adhesives in dry film form with or without reinforcing material that is cured by heat and pressure.
  • Film backing
    (1) The transparent sheet which carries the sensitized emulsion layer of photographic films; (2) The plastic or paper sheet which carries the photosensitive emulsion layer of a photographic screen printing stencil film, or the transparent plastic or semi-transparent paper sheet on which knife-cut stencil film is temporarily mounted.
  • Film base
    The transparent support material for the emulsion or gelatin coat.
  • Film deposit
    Layer thickness of imprint on a substrate.
  • Film emulsion
    He light sensitive layer of the film which is coated onto the film base and which, on exposure and developing, forms the photographic image.
  • Film former
    Type of resin with qualities which form a tough, dimensionally stable and continuous film.
  • Film gauge
    A number indicating the thickness of film.
  • Film hardness test
    Any of a variety of test methods used to determine the hardness of an organic coating or ink on a substrate.
  • Film image assembly (image assembly)
    Positioning, mounting, and securing various individual films to one carrier sheet in preparation for screen making.