Glossary Of Terms

The SGIA Glossary of Terms serves as an excellent industry terminology resource. It is the language by which we all communicate, without it universal understanding would be impossible. Language and our ideas about how it is interpreted change rapidly. SGIA is aware of this and continues its effort to keep our constituents well informed about changes to the increasingly complex industry terminology. The definitions are for general reference only. Usage may vary between companies, individuals, or national and country customs. The information presented is as accurate as the authors and editors can ascertain and SGIA assumes no responsibility for the use of information presented herein.


  • Enlarger
    A device for projecting a photographic positive or negative onto a sensitized material or onto a wall of a darkroom for the purpose of obtaining a larger image.
  • Entrapped carbon
    Dark carbon film between enamel/gold film and glass usually due to rapid firing or lack of oxygen in the lehr.
  • Environmental influences
    All conditions of weather, sunshine, heat, rain, and cold including gases that may be present in exterior exposure conditions; interior environment may include heat, humidity, vapors, fumes, and all other characteristics of surrounding atmosphere.
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (USEPA)
    A US government agency formed to implement the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and subsequent environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act and Solid Waste Amendments.
  • Enzymes
    Composition derived usually from meat by-products which digest gelatin materials, i.e., photoscreen films, without harming the fabric.
  • EOQ
    Acceptable acronym for European Organization for Quality.
  • Eosin
    A red crystalline powder used in textile dyeing and ink manufacturing; refer to phloxine
  • EP toxicity (Extraction Procedure Toxicity)
    A characteristic that a substance exhibits when the extract is tested in accordance with a procedure described in US Appendix II to 40 CFR Part 260 (or an equivalent method) and is found to equal or exceed concentrations of the contaminants shown.
  • EPA hazardous waste number
    The number assigned by EPA to each hazardous waste listed in 40 CFR 261 of the US Code of Federal Regulations.
  • EPA identification number
    The number assigned by EPA to each US hazardous waste generator, hazardous waste transporter or hazardous waste facility.
  • Epoxy
    A group of thermosetting resins having strong adhesive qualities, also capability of forming a very tough ink film with excellent chemical and environmental resistance.
  • Epoxy plastic
    Plastic based on resins made by the reaction of expoxides or oxiranes with other materials such as amines, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, acid anhydrides and unsaturated compounds.
  • Epoxy polyurethane
    A general term for a film-forming system made up of isocyanate resins reacted with water (moisture cured) or hydroxy functional polyester, polyethers, or polyols and modified with an epoxy resin.
  • Epoxy system
    A system or systems using inks or coatings that require catalytic reaction in order to change from liquid to dry state.
  • Epson? emulation
    Industry standard control codes for dot matrix printers, developed by Epson™.
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
    A US federal government commission that enforces anti-discrimination laws based on sex, race, or national origin.
  • Equalization
    An image processing technique where the range of tones or colors in an image file is expanded to produce a more pleasing image.
  • Equilibrium constant
    The product of the concentrations (or activities) of the substances produced at equilibrium in a chemical reaction divided by the product of concentrations of the reacting substances, each concentration raised to that power which is the coefficient of the substance in the chemical equation.
  • Equilibrium relative humidity (ERH)
    The point where the moisture content of paper reaches equilibrium with the relative humidity.
  • Equivalent weights
    A mathematical calculation that provides an equal comparison of different size and ream weights of papers that have the same basis weight.
  • Ergonomics
    The application of biotechnology and engineered principles to improve convenience, ease of use, and operator comfort.
  • Errata
    An acknowledgement of a printing error.
  • Error diffusion
    In electronic scanning, smoothing a rough area of a digital image by averaging the difference of adjoining pixels.
  • Erythema
    An irritation of the skin, typically exhibited by redness that can be caused by exposure to UV light rays.
  • ESMA
    Acceptable acronym for European Screen Printing Manufacturers Association.